Growth factors used clinically to stimulate hematopoietic stem cells

a.      'GM-CSF (Granulocyte Monocyte Colony stimulating factor): may be used to treat neutropenia; boosts granulocyte production, ↓ risk of infection in leukopenic pts.

b.      'G-CSF: used to help pts recover from chemo; to help recover counts after BMT; to get BM stem cells mobilized into circulation so we can collect them for autologous transplantation.

c.       'FLT3 Ligand: binds FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase on hematopoietic cells and stimulates proliferation.

d.      'Thrombopoietin' (tPO): growth factor stimulating platelet production

                                                  i.      'Involved in: proliferation & survival of MK and precursors, differentiation of megakaryocyte precursors into mature MKs, and platelet release


                                              iii.      'TPO Receptor (MPL): JAK/STAT pathway


'II.                'Pancytopenia: ↓ WBC, ↓ RBC, ↓ Platelets