Growth factors used clinically to stimulate hematopoietic stem cells
a. 'GM-CSF (Granulocyte Monocyte Colony stimulating factor): may be used to treat neutropenia; boosts granulocyte production, ↓ risk of infection in leukopenic pts.
b. 'G-CSF: used to help pts recover from chemo; to help recover counts after BMT; to get BM stem cells mobilized into circulation so we can collect them for autologous transplantation.
c. 'FLT3 Ligand: binds FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase on hematopoietic cells and stimulates proliferation.
d. 'Thrombopoietin' (tPO): growth factor stimulating platelet production
i. 'Involved in: proliferation & survival of MK and precursors, differentiation of megakaryocyte precursors into mature MKs, and platelet release
iii. 'TPO Receptor (MPL): JAK/STAT pathway
'II. 'Pancytopenia: ↓ WBC, ↓ RBC, ↓ Platelets